Health and Environmental Hazards of GMOs: An Annotated Bibliography.

This is a growing and still incomplete list of sources and links regarding impartial research and information that demonstrates the negative health and environmental impacts of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). We will try to update it periodically. Please feel free to contact us if you would like to add a paper or article to this list in the future. This list was started on Oct. 16th and last updated January 2nd 2014.

Achkor H, Diaz M, Fernandez MR, Biosca JA, Pares X and Martinez MC. Enhanced formaldehyde detoxification by over expression of glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase from Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 2003, 132, 2248-55.

Acquavella, J. F., Alexander, B. H. et al. 2004. Glyphosate biomonitoring for farmers and their families: results from the Farm Family Exposure Study. Environ Health Perspect 112(3): 321-326.

Anadon, A., Martinez-Larranaga, M. R. et al. 2009. Toxicokinetics of glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethyl phosphonic acid in rats. Toxicol Lett 190(1): 91–95.

Antoniou, Michael, et al, “Roundup and birth defects: Is the public being kept in the dark?” Earth Open Source, 2011

Amnesty International. 2010. Argentina: Threats deny community access to research. 12 August.

Aranda, D. 2010. Interview with Prof Andrés Carrasco on his research showing Roundup link with birth defects. August.

Arbuckle, T. E., Lin, Z. et al. 2001. An exploratory analysis of the effect of pesticide exposure on the risk of spontaneous abortion in an Ontario farm population. Environmental Health Perspectives 109: 851–857.

Aris, A. and Leblanc, S. 2011. Maternal and fetal exposure to pesticides associated to genetically modified foods in EasternTownships of Quebec, Canada. ReproductiveToxicology.

Astiz, M., de Alaniz, M. J. et al. 2009. Effect of pesticides on cell survival in liver and brain rat tissues. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 72(7): 2025–2032.

Attorney General of the State of New York, Consumer Frauds and Protection Bureau, Environmental Protection Bureau. 1996. In the matter of Monsanto Company, respondent. Assurance of discontinuance pursuant to executive law § 63(15). New York, NY, Nov. False advertising by Monsanto regarding the safety of Roundup herbicide (glyphosate).

Bakshi, A. (2003). Potential adverse health effects of genetically modified crops. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B, 6, 211-225

Barber RD, Ott MA and Donohue TJ. Characterization of a glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. J Bacteriol 1996, 178, 1386-93.

Belmonte, R.V. 2006. Victims of glyphosate. IPS News, March 16.

Bellé, R., Le Bouffant, R., Morales, J., Cosson, B., Cormier, P., Mulner-Lorillon, O. 2007. Sea urchin embryo, DNA-damaged cell cycle checkpoint and the mechanisms initiating cancer development. J. Soc. Biol. 201: 317–327.

Benbrook, C.M. 2009. Impacts of genetically engineered crops on pesticide use in the United States: The first thirteen years. The Organic Center, November.

Benbrook C.M. 2005. Rust, resistance, run down soils, and rising costs – Problems facing soybean producers in Argentina. AgBioTech InfoNet, Technical Paper No. 8, January.

Bekelman, J. E., Li, Y. et al. 2003. Scope and impact of financial conflicts of interest in biomedical research: a systematic review. JAMA 289(4): 454-465.

Benachour, N., Séralini, G. E. 2009. Glyphosate formulations induce apoptosis and necrosis in human umbilical, embryonic, and placental cells. Chem Res Toxicol 22: 97–105.

Benedetti, A. L., Vituri, C. d. L. et al. 2004. The effects of sub-chronic exposure of Wistar rats to the herbicide Glyphosate-Biocarb. Toxicol Lett 153(2): 227–232.

Benitez-Leite, S., Macchi, M.A., Acosta, M. 2009. Malformaciones congénitas asociadas a agrotóxicos. Arch. Pediatr. Urug 80, 237–247.

Bernstein J.A., Bernstein I.L., Bucchini L., Goldman L.R., Hamilton R.G., Lehrer S., Rubin C., and Sampson H.A. (2003). Clinical and laboratory investigation of allergy to genetically modified foods. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(8), 1114-1121.

Beyer, B. K. et al. 2011. ILSI/HESI maternal toxicity workshop summary: Maternal toxicity and its impact on study design and data interpretation. Birth Defects Research Part B: Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology 92: 36–51. February.

Bolognesi, C., Bonatti, S. et al. 1997. Genotoxic activity of glyphosate and its technical formulation Roundup. J. Agric. Food Chem. 45(5): 1957–1962.

Branford S. 2004. Argentina’s bitter harvest. New Scientist, 17 April.

Burris, JS. “Adventitious pollen intrusion into hybrid maize seed production fields.” Proc. 56th Annual Corn and Sorghum Research Conference 2001, American Seed Trade Association, Inc., Washington, DC.

BVL, Germany. 2010. Glyphosate – Comments from Germany on the paper by Paganelli, A. et al. (2010): “Glyphosate-based Herbicides Produce Teratogenic Effects on Vertebrates by Impairing Retinoic Acid Signaling”. Octobe 19.

Cavas, T., Konen, S. 2007. Detection of cytogenetic and DNA damage in peripheral erythrocytes of goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to a glyphosate formulation using the micronucleus test and the comet assay. Mutagenesis 22(4): 263–268.

Chen, et al, “Transfection of mEpo gene to intestinal epithelium in vivo mediated by oral delivery of chitosan-DNA nanoparticles,” World Journal of Gastroenterology 10, no 1(2004): 112–116.

Clotman, F., Van Maele-Fabry, G. et al. 1998. Structural and gene expression abnormalities induced by retinoic acid in the forebrain. Reprod Toxicol 12(2): 169–176.

Collonier,C., G. Berthier, F. Boyer, M. N. Duplan, S. Fernandez, N. Kebdani, A. Kobilinsky, M. Romanuk, Y. Bertheau, “Characterization of commercial GMO inserts: a source of useful material to study genome fluidity,” Poster presented at ICPMB: International Congress for Plant Molecular Biology (n°VII), Barcelona, 23-28th June 2003.
Cummins, R. and Lilliston, Ben. 2004. “Genetically Engineered Food: A Self-Defense Guide.
Comments to ANZFA about Applications A346, A362 and A363 from the Food Legislation and Regulation Advisory Group (FLRAG) of the Public Health Association of Australia (PHAA) on behalf of the PHAA, “Food produced from glyphosate-tolerant canola line GT73,”

Dalli, J. 2010. Answer given by Mr Dalli on behalf of the Commission. Parliamentary questions, European Parliament, Brussels, November 12.

De Roos, A. J., Blair, A., Rusiecki, J. A., et al. 2005. Cancer incidence among glyphosate-exposed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study. Environ Health Perspect. 113(1): 49–54.

Diels, J., M. Cunha, et al. 2011. Association of financial or professional conflict of interest to research outcomes on health risks or nutritional assessment studies of genetically modified products. Food Policy 36: 197–203.

Doeble, J. (1990) Molecular evidence for gene flow among Zea species-genes transformed into maize through genetic-engineering would be transferred to its wild relatives, the teosintes. Bioscience 40: 443–448.

Eberbach, P. L., Douglas, L. A. 1983. Persistence of glyphosate in a sandy loam. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 15(4): 485–487.

Ermakova, I.V.  “Diet with the Soya Modified by Gene EPSPS CP4 Leads to Anxiety and Aggression in Rats,” 14th European Congress of Psychiatry. Nice, France, March 4-8, 2006.

Ermakova, Irina. “Genetically modified soy leads to the decrease of weight and high mortality of rat pups of the first generation. Preliminary studies,”Ecosinform 1 (2006): 4–9.

Ermakova, Irina. “Experimental Evidence of GMO Hazards,” Presentation at Scientists for a GM Free Europe, EU Parliament, Brussels, June 12, 2007.

Einspanier, et al, “The fate of forage plant DNA in farm animals; a collaborative case-study investigating cattle and chicken fed recombinant plant material,” Eur Food Res Technol 212 (2001): 129–134.

European Commission Health & Consumer Protection Directorate-General. 2002. Review report for the active substance glyphosate. 6511/VI/99-final, January 21.

European Commission. 1998. Glyphosate. Reasoned statement of the overall conclusions drawn by the rapporteur member state. In: Glyphosate DAR, released by German government agency BVL on CD, Volume1_Glyphosat_02.pdf: p. 9 of the pdf.

EU Commission. 1999. Appendix 1: ECCO 82 Reporting Table. 5. Residues. In: Glyphosate DAR, released by German government agency BVL on CD, FullReport_Glyphosat_03.pdf: p. 31 of the pdf.

Ewen S, Pustzai A. Effects of diets containing genetically modified potatoes expressing Galanthus nivalis lectin on rat small intestine.Lancet. 354:1353-1354.

Fagin, D., Lavelle, M. 1999. Toxic Deception: How the Chemical Industry Manipulates Science, Bends the Law and Endangers Your Health. Monroe, ME, USA. Common Courage Press.

FAO-WHO, “Evaluation of Allergenicity of Genetically Modified Foods. Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Allergenicity of Foods Derived from Biotechnology,” Jan. 22–25, 2001;

FAO. 2005. Pesticide residues in food – 2005. Report of the Joint Meeting of the FAO Panel of Experts on Pesticide Residues in Food and the Environment and the WHO Core Assessment Group on Pesticide Residues, Geneva, Switzerland, 20–29 September. FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper 183: 7.

Fares, Nagui H., Adel K. El-Sayed, “Fine Structural Changes in the Ileum of Mice Fed on Endotoxin Treated Potatoes and Transgenic Potatoes,” Natural Toxins 6, no. 6 (1998): 219–233.
Finamore, Alberto, et al, “Intestinal and Peripheral Immune Response to MON810 Maize Ingestion in Weaning and Old Mice,” J. Agric. Food Chem., 2008, 56 (23), pp 11533–11539, November 14, 2008.

Flynn, L., Gillard, M. S. 1999. Pro-GM food scientist “threatened editor”. The Guardian (UK), November 1.

Forsman, et al, “Uptake of amplifiable fragments of retrotransposon DNA from the human alimentary tract,” Mol Gen Genomics 270 (2003): 362–368.

Fox, W., Michael. Killer Foods When Scientists Manipulate Genes, Better is Not Always Best. New York: The Lyons, 2004. Print.

Freese W, Schubert D. Safety testing and regulation of genetically engineered foods. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews. Nov 2004. 21.

Gasnier, C., Dumont, C., Benachour, N., Clair, E., Chagnon, M.C., Séralini, G-E. 2009. Glyphosate-based herbicides are toxic and endocrine disruptors in human cell lines. Toxicology 262: 184–191.

Garry, V. F., Harkins, M. E. et al. 2002. Birth defects, season of conception, and sex of children born to pesticide applicators living in the Red River Valley of Minnesota, USA. Environ Health Perspect 110 Suppl 3: 441–449.

Gendel, “The use of amino acid sequence alignments to assess potential allergenicity of proteins used in genetically modified foods,” Advances in Food and Nutrition Research 42 (1998), 45–62.

George, J., Prasad, S., Mahmood, Z., Shukla, Y. 2010. Studies on glyphosate-induced carcinogenicity in mouse skin: A proteomic approach. J Proteomics 73: 951–964.

GMO Compass. 2010. Soybeans. September 2.

Green, M., et al., “Public health implications of the microbial pesticide Bacillus thuringiensis: An epidemiological study, Oregon, 1985-86,” Amer. J. Public Health 80, no. 7(1990): 848–852.
Gupta, Ashish, et. al., “Impact of Bt Cotton on Farmers’ Health (in Barwani and Dhar District of Madhya Pradesh),” Investigation Report, Oct–Dec 2005.

Guilherme, S., Gaivao, I. et al. 2010. European eel (Anguilla anguilla) genotoxic and pro-oxidant responses following short-term exposure to Roundup – a glyphosate-based herbicide. Mutagenesis 25(5): 523–530.

Gurain-Sherman,D. 2009. Failure to yield: evaluating the performance of genetically engineered crops. Cambridge (MA): Union of Concerned Scientists

Hardell, L., Eriksson, M. 1999. A case-control study of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and exposure to pesticides. Cancer. 85(6): 1353–1360.

Hardell, L., Eriksson, M., Nordstrom, M. 2002. Exposure to pesticides as risk factor for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and hairy cell leukemia: pooled analysis of two Swedish case-control studies. Leuk Lymphoma. 43(5): 1043–1049.

Hart, Kathleen. Eating in the Dark America’s Experiment with Genetically Engineered Food. New York: Pantheon, 2002.

Heinemann, Jack.

Heinemann, Jack; et. al. “A comparative evaluation of the regulation of GM crops or products containing dsRNA and suggested improvements to risk assessments” Environment International, Volume 55, May 2013, Pages 43-55.

Heinemann, J.A.; Kurenbach, B.; Quist, D. “Molecular profiling — a tool for addressing emerging gaps in the comparative risk assessment of GMOs.” Env Int. 37:1285-1293; 2011

Hill, AB. The environment and disease: association or causation? Proceeding of the Royal Society of Medicine 1965; 58:295-300.

Hohlweg and Doerfler, “On the fate of plants or other foreign genes upon the uptake in food or after intramuscular injection in mice,” Mol Genet Genomics 265 (2001): 225–233.

Hokanson, R., Fudge, R. et al. 2007. Alteration of estrogen-regulated gene expression in human cells induced by the agricultural and horticultural herbicide glyphosate. Hum Exp Toxicol 26(9): 747–752.

Ho, Mae-Wan. “Transgenic lines proven unstable,” ISIS Report, 23 October 2003,

Ho, Mae-Wan. “GM Ban Long Overdue, Dozens Ill & Five Deaths in the Philippines,” ISIS Press Release, June 2, 2006.

Ho, Mae-Wan and Sam Burcher, “Cows Ate GM Maize & Died,” ISIS Press Release, January 13, 2004,

Ho MW and Cummins J. Roundup Ready sudden death, superweeds, allergens…time to wipe GM crops off the globe. Science in Society 28, 26-27, 2005.

Ho MW. Ban glyphosate herbicides now. Science in Society 43, 34-35, 2009.

Ho MW. GM crops facing meltdown in the USA. Science in Society 46.

Ho MW. Genetic Engineering Dream of Nightmare? The Brave New World of Bad Science and Big Business, Third World Network, Gateway Books, MacMillan, Continuum, Penang, Malaysia, Bath, UK, Dublin, Ireland, New York, USA, 1998, 1999, 2007 (reprint with extended Introduction).

Huff, J., Jacobson, M. F. et al. 2008. The limits of two-year bioassay exposure regimens for identifying chemical carcinogens. Environ Health Perspect 116(11): 1439–1442.

Huff, Ethan A. “GMO Labeling Proposal Headed to Ballot in Washington State.”NaturalNews.
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Hye-Yung Yum, Soo-Young Lee, Kyung-Eun Lee, Myung-Hyun Sohn, Kyu-Earn Kim, “Genetically Modified and Wild Soybeans: An immunologic comparison,” Allergy and Asthma Proceedings 26, no. 3 (May–June 2005): 210-216(7).

IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risk for Humans 62, Wood Dust and Formaldehyde, IARC, Lyon, 1995.

Jiraungkoorskul, W., Upatham, E. S. et al. 2003. Biochemical and histopathological effects of glyphosate herbicide on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Environ Toxicol 18(4): 260–267.

Johal GS and Huber DM. Glyphosate effects on diseases of plants. Eur J Agron 2009, 144-52.

Johnson, B. and Davis, V. 2005. Glyphosate resistant horseweed (marestail) found in 9 more Indiana counties. Pest & Crop, May 13.

Kale, P. G., Petty, B. T. Jr., et al. 1995. Mutagenicity testing of nine herbicides and pesticides currently used in agriculture. Environ Mol Mutagen 25(2): 148–153.

Kaplan, S. 2011. Company pays US government to challenge pesticide research linked to Parkinson’s. Politics Daily. February 13.

Kilic A, Aday M. A three generational study with genetically modified Bt corn in rats: biochemical and histopathological investigation. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2008; 46(3):1164-1170.

Kilman, S. 2010. Superweed outbreak triggers arms race. Wall Street Journal, 4 June.

Kleter, G. A., and A. A. C. M. Peijnenburg, “Screening of transgenic proteins expressed in transgenic food crops for the presence of short amino acid sequences indentical to potential, IgE-binding linear epitopes of allergens,” BMC Structural Biology 2 (2002): 8–19.

Klotz, et al, “Degradation and possible carry over of feed DNA monitored in pigs and poultry,” Eur Food Res Technol 214 (2002): 271–275.

Knee, Brewster, Hanrahan, Maura, REV. “Farmageddon: food & the culture of biotechnology.” Alternatives June 2000: 46.

Knispel A. L., McLachlan, S. M., Van Acker, R., Friesen, L. F. 2008. Gene flow and multiple herbicide resistance in escaped canola populations. Weed Science 56: 72–80.

Kremer RJ and Means NE. Glyphosate and glyphosate-resistant crop interactions with rhizosphere microorganisms. European Journal of Agronomy 2009, 31, 153-61.

Kroghsbo S, Madsen C, Poulsen M, et al. Immunotoxicological studies of genetically modified rice expression PHA-E lectin or Bt toxin in Wistar rats. Toxicology. 2008; 245:24-34.

Lajmanovich, R. C., Sandoval, M. T., Peltzer, P. M. 2003. Induction of mortality and malformation in Scinax nasicus tadpoles exposed to glyphosate formulations. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 70, 612–618.

Lammer, E. J., Chen, D. T. et al. 1985. Retinoic acid embryopathy. N Engl J Med 313: 837–841.

Latham, Jonathan, and Allison Wilson. “Regulators Discover a Hidden Viral Gene in Commercial GMO Crops”

Latham, J. R. et al., “The Mutational Consequences of Plant Transformation,” The Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology 2006, Article ID 25376: 1-7.

Lepkowski, W. 2002. Biotech’s OK Corral. Perspectives 13, Consortium for Science, Policy & Outcomes, Arizona State University. July 9.

Levine, E. et al., “Molecular Characterization of Insect Protected Corn Line MON 810.” Unpublished study submitted to the EPA by Monsanto, EPA MRID No. 436655-01C (1995).

Lexchin, J., Bero, L. A. et al. 2003. Pharmaceutical industry sponsorship and research outcome and quality: systematic review. British Medical Journal 326: 1167.

Lofstedt R. The precautionary principle: risk, regulation and politics. Merton College, Oxford. 2002.

Lopez, S. L., Carrasco, A. E. 1992. Retinoic acid induces changes in the localization of homeobox proteins in the antero-posterior axis of Xenopus laevis embryos. Mech Dev 36(3): 153–164.

Lopez, S. L., Dono, R. et al. 1995. Differential effects of retinoic acid and a retinoid antagonist on the spatial distribution of the homeoprotein Hoxb-7 in vertebrate embryos. Dev Dyn 204(4): 457–471.

Losey, John E., Linda S. Rayor, and Maureen E. Carter. “Transgenic pollen harms monarch larvae”Nature 399, 214 (20 May 1999).
Ma BL, Subedi KD, Reid LM (2004) Extent of cross-fertilization in maize by pollen from neighboring transgenic hybrids. Crop Sci44: 1273–1282

Malatesta,M., C. Caporaloni, S. Gavaudan, M. B. Rocchi, S. Serafini, C. Tiberi, G. Gazzanelli, “Ultrastructural Morphometrical and Immunocytochemical Analyses of Hepatocyte Nuclei from Mice Fed on Genetically Modified Soybean,” Cell Struct Funct. 27 (2002): 173–180.

Malatesta,M. , C. Tiberi, B. Baldelli, S. Battistelli, E. Manuali, M. Biggiogera, “Reversibility of Hepatocyte Nuclear Modifications in Mice Fed on Genetically Modified Soybean,” Eur J Histochem, 49(2005): 237-242

Malatesta, M., M. Biggiogera, E. Manuali, M. B. L. Rocchi, B. Baldelli, G. Gazzanelli, “Fine Structural Analyses of Pancreatic Acinar Cell Nuclei from Mice Fed on GM Soybean,” Eur J Histochem 47 (2003): 385–388.

Malatesta M, Boraldi F, Annovi G, et al. A long-term study on female mice fed on a genetically modified soybean:effects on liver ageing. Histochem Cell Biol. 2008; 130:967-977.

Mañas, F., Peralta, L., Raviolo, J., Garcia, O.H., Weyers, A., Ugnia, L., Gonzalez, C.M., Larripa, I., Gorla, N. 2009. Genotoxicity of glyphosate assessed by the Comet assay and cytogenic tests. Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 28: 37–41.

Marc, J., Le Breton, M., et al. 2005. A glyphosate-based pesticide impinges on transcription. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 203(1): 1–8.

Marc, J., Mulner-Lorillon, O., Bellé, R. 2004. Glyphosate-based pesticides affect cell cycle regulation. Biology of the Cell 96: 245–249.

Marc, J., Mulner-Lorillon, O., Boulben, S., Hureau, D., Durand, G., Bellé, R. 2002. Pesticide Roundup provokes cell division dysfunction at the level of CDK1/cyclin B activation. Chem. Res Toxicol. 15: 326–331.

Marc, J., Bellé, R., Morales, J., Cormier, P., Mulner-Lorillon, O. 2004. Formulated glyphosate activates the DNA-response checkpoint of the cell cycle leading to the prevention of G2/M transition. Toxicological Sciences 82: 436–442.

Mesnage, R. et al.”Cytotoxicity on human cells of Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac Bt insecticidal toxins alone or with a glyphosate-based herbicide.” Journal of Applied Toxicology. Volume 33Issue 7pages 695–699July 2013.
Mezzomo,  Bélin Poletto;  et. al. “Hematotoxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis as Spore-crystal Strains Cry1Aa, Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac or Cry2Aa in Swiss Albino Mice ” Journal of Hematology & Thromboembolic Diseases .

Michaels, D. 2008. Doubt is Their Product: How Industry’s Assault on Science Threatens Your Health. Oxford University Press.

Monsanto. 2005. Backgrounder: Testing Fraud: IBT and Craven Labs, Monsanto background paper on Roundup. June.

Nandula, V.K., Reddy, K., Duke, S. 2005. Glyphosate-resistant weeds: Current status and future outlook. Outlooks on Pest Management 16: 183–187.

Netherwood et al, “Assessing the survival of transgenic plant DNA in the human gastrointestinal tract,” Nature Biotechnology 22 (2004): 2.
Nie CL, Wang XS, Liu Y, Perrett S and He RQ. Amyloid-like aggregates induced by formaldehyde promote apoptosis of neuronal cells BMC Neurosci 2007, 8, 9.

Nice, G, Johnson, B., Bauman, T. 2008. A little burndown madness. Pest & Crop, March 7.

Noble, M.A., P.D. Riben, and G. J. Cook, Microbiological and epidemiological surveillance program to monitor the health effects of Foray 48B BTK spray (Vancouver, B.C.: Ministry of Forests, Province of British Columbi, Sep. 30, 1992)

Noteborn, H. P. J. M. “Assessment of the Stability to Digestion and Bioavailability of the LYS Mutant Cry9C Protein from Bacillus thuringiensis serovar tolworthi,” Unpublished study submitted to the EPA by AgrEvo, EPA MRID No. 447343-05 (1998).

Noteborn,H. P. J. M., et al, “Safety Assessment of the Bacillus thuringiensis Insecticidal Crystal Protein CRYIA(b) Expressed in Transgenic Tomatoes,” in Genetically modified foods: safety issues, American Chemical Society Symposium Series 605, eds. K.H. Engel et al., (Washington, DC, 1995): 134–47.

Novak, R. A. 2001. The long arm of the lab laws. Today’s Chemist at Work 10(11): 45–46.

Oliveri et al., “Temporary Depression of Transcription in Mouse Pre-implantion Embryos from Mice Fed on Genetically Modified Soybean,” 48th Symposium of the Society for Histochemistry, Lake Maggiore (Italy), September 7–10, 2006.

Padmanabhan, R. 1998. Retinoic acid-induced caudal regression syndrome in the mouse foetus. Reprod Toxicol 12(2): 139–151.

Paganelli, A., Gnazzo, V. et al. 2010. Glyphosate-based herbicides produce teratogenic effects on vertebrates by impairing retinoic acid signaling. Chem Res Toxicol 23(10): 1586–1595.

Peluso, M., Munnia, A. et al. 1998. 32P-postlabeling detection of DNA adducts in mice treated with the herbicide Roundup. Environ Mol Mutagen 31(1): 55–59.

Paumgartten, F. J. 2010. Influence of maternal toxicity on the outcome of developmental toxicity studies. J Toxicol Environ Health A 73(13-14): 944-951.

Paz-y-Miño, C., Sánchez, M.E., Arévalo, M., Muñoz, M.J., Witte, T., De-la-Carrera, G.O., Leone, P. E. 2007. Evaluation of DNA damage in an Ecuadorian population exposed to glyphosate. Genetics and Molecular Biology 30: 456–460.

Pearce, Fred. “Cashing in on hunger – Biotechnology’s bid to feed the world is leaving less profitable techniques starved of funds.” New Scientist 160 (1998): 2155.

Phipps, et al, “Detection of transgenic and endogenous plant DNA in rumen fluid, duodenal digesta, milk, blood, and feces of lactating dairy cows,” J Dairy Sci. 86, no. 12(2003): 4070–8.

Prescott, V. E., et al, “Transgenic Expression of Bean r-Amylase Inhibitor in Peas Results in Altered Structure and Immunogenicity,” Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry (2005): 53.

Palka-Santani, et al., “The gastrointestinal tract as the portal of entry for foreign macromolecules: fate of DNA and proteins,” Mol Gen Genomics 270 (2003): 201–215.
Pusztai,Arpad. “Can science give us the tools for recognizing possible health risks of GM food,”Nutrition and Health, 2002, Vol 16 Pp 73-84

Pusztai, Arpad.  “Facts Behind the GM Pea Controversy: Epigenetics, Transgenic Plants & Risk Assessment,” Proceedings of the Conference, December 1st 2005 (Frankfurtam Main, Germany: Literaturhaus, 2005).

Pusztai, A. and S. Bardocz, “GMO in animal nutrition: potential benefits and risks,” Chapter 17,Biology of Nutrition in Growing Animals, R. Mosenthin, J. Zentek and T. Zebrowska (Eds.) Elsevier, October 2005.

Randerson, J. 2002. Genetically-modified superweeds “not uncommon”. New Scientist, February 5.http://www.newscientist.Roundup and birth defects: Is the public being kept in the dark? 51 

Rapporteur member state, Germany. 1998. Monograph on Glyphosate. Annex B–5.10.2: Toxicology and Metabolism. In: Glyphosate DAR, released by German government agency BVL on CD, Volume 3-1_Glyphosat_05.pdf

Reddy, K. N., Rimando, A. M. et al. 2004. Aminomethylphosphonic acid, a metabolite of glyphosate, causes injury in glyphosate-treated, glyphosate-resistant soybean. J Agric Food Chem 52(16): 5139–5143.

REGNUM,”Genetically modified soy affects posterity: Results of Russian scientists’ studies,” October 12, 2005;

Richard, S., Moslemi, S. et al. 2005. Differential effects of glyphosate and roundup on human placental cells and aromatase. Environ Health Perspect 113(6): 716–720.

Robinson, R. 2008. Resistant ryegrass populations rise in Mississippi. Delta Farm Press, Oct 30.

Romano, R. M., Romano, M. A. et al. 2010. Prepubertal exposure to commercial formulation of the herbicide Glyphosate alters testosterone levels and testicular morphology. Archives of Toxicology 84(4): 309–317.

Rosi-Marshall,E. J.. et. al. “Toxins in transgenic crop byproducts may affect headwater stream ecosystems.” Proceedings of the National Acadamy of Sciences of the United States of America.Vol. 104 no. 41.

Rowell, A. 2003. Don’t Worry, Its Safe to Eat.

Sanchís, J., et. al, “Determination of glyphosate in groundwater samples using an ultrasensitive immunoassay and confirmation by on-line solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.”Analytical and Bioanalitical Chemistry. 2012 Aug;404(2):617.


Savitz, D. A., Arbuckle, T. et al. 1997. Male pesticide exposure and pregnancy outcome. Am J Epidemiol 146(12): 1025–1036.

Schubbert et al, “Foreign (M13) DNA ingested by mice reaches peripheral leukocytes, spleen, and liver via the intestinal wall mucosa and can be covalently linked to mouse DNA,” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94, no. 3 (1997): 961–6.

Schubbert et al, “On the fate of orally ingested foreign DNA in mice: chromosomal association and placental transmission to the fetus,” Mol Gen Genet. 259, no. 6 (1998): 569–76.

Scientific Committee on Plants, Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Plants Regarding the Genetically Modified, Glufosinate-Tolerant Rape Notified by the Agrevo Company.” 10 February 1998.

Scientific American. “Do Seed Companies Control GM Crop Research?”
Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Joël Spiroux de Vendômois, Dominique Cellier, Charles Sultan, Marcello Buiatti, Lou Gallagher, Michael Antoniou, Krishna R. Dronamraju”How Subchronic and Chronic Health Effects can be Neglected for GMOs, Pesticides or Chemicals” Int J Biol Sci. 2009; 5(5): 438–443.
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